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Test ID: LGBBS Globotriaosylsphingosine, Blood Spot


Ordering Guidance


Serum is the recommended specimen type for monitoring patients with Fabry Disease. For more information see LGB3S / Globotriaosylsphingosine, Serum.

Specimen Required


Supplies:

-Card-Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

-Card-Postmortem Screening (Filter Paper) (T525)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper)

Acceptable: Ahlstrom 226 filter paper, Munktell filter paper, Postmortem Screening Card or collected with EDTA, sodium heparin, lithium heparin, or ACD B-containing devices

Specimen Volume: 2 blood spots

Collection Instructions:

1. Let blood dry completely on filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for a minimum of 3 hours.

2. At least 1 spot should be complete, (ie, unpunched).

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry.

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.


Forms

Biochemical Genetics Patient Information (T602) in Special Instructions.

Useful For

Diagnosing and monitoring of patients with Fabry disease using dried blood spots when a serum specimen is not available

 

This test is not intended for newborn screening followup.

Method Name

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

Reporting Name

Globotriaosylsphingosine, BS

Specimen Type

Whole blood

Specimen Minimum Volume

1 Blood spot

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole blood Refrigerated (preferred) 10 days FILTER PAPER
  Frozen  59 days FILTER PAPER
  Ambient  10 days FILTER PAPER

Clinical Information

Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-GAL A). Reduced enzyme activity results in accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the lysosomes throughout the body, in particular, in the kidney, heart, and brain. Severity and onset of symptoms are dependent on the residual enzyme activity. Symptoms may include acroparesthesias (pain crises), multiple angiokeratomas, reduced or absent sweating, corneal opacity, renal insufficiency leading to end-stage renal disease, and cardiac and cerebrovascular disease. There are renal and cardiac variant forms of Fabry disease that may be underdiagnosed. Females who are heterozygous forFabry disease can have clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to severely affected, and they may have alpha-GAL A activity in the normal range. The estimated incidence varies from 1 in 3000 infants detected via newborn screening to 1 in 10,000 males diagnosed after onset of symptoms.

 

Unless irreversible damage has already occurred, treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has led to significant clinical improvement in affected individuals. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are desirable, and early detection of Fabry disease through newborn screening has been implemented in a few US states.

 

Absent or reduced alpha-GAL A in leukocytes (AGA / Alpha-Galactosidase, Leukocytes), serum (AGAS / Alpha-Galactosidase, Serum), or blood spots (AGABS / Alpha-Galactosidase, Blood Spot) can reliably diagnose classic or variant Fabry disease in males. Molecular genetic testing is the recommended diagnostic test for females as alpha-GAL A activity may be in the normal range in an affected female patient. Molecular sequence analysis of the GLA gene (FABRZ / Fabry Disease, Full Gene Analysis, Varies) allows for detection of the disease-causing variant in males and females.

 

The glycosphingolipid, globotriaosylsphingosine (LGb3), may be elevated in symptomatic patients and supports a diagnosis of Fabry disease. It may also be helpful as a tool for monitoring disease progression as well as determining treatment response in known patients. In addition, measurement of LGb3, may provide additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of uncertain cases, such as in asymptomatic heterozygous females, individuals with novel GLA variants of unclear clinical significance, as well as asymptomatic patients identified by family screening.

Reference Values

Cutoff: ≤0.034 nmol/mL

Interpretation

An elevation of globotriaosylsphingosine (LGb3) is suggestive of Fabry disease.

Clinical Reference

1. Alharbi FJ, Baig S, Auray-Blais C, Boutin M, et al: Globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3) as a biomarker for cardiac variant (N215S) Fabry disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2018 Mar;41(2):239-247. doi: 10.1007/s10545-017-0127-2.

2. Vardarli I, Rischpler C, Herrmann K, Weidemann F: Diagnosis and screening of patients with Fabry disease. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2020 Jun 22;16:551-558. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S247814.

3. Mehta A, Hughes DA: Fabry disease. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 2002. Updated January 5, 2017. Accessed November 10, 2020. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1292/

Day(s) Performed

Tuesday

Report Available

2 to 9 days

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

82542

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
LGBBS Globotriaosylsphingosine, BS 92754-1

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
BA4368 Interpretation (LGBBS) 59462-2
BA4367 Globotriaosylsphingosine 92754-1
BA4369 Reviewed By 18771-6
Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Genetics and Pharmacogenomics Catalog Additional Information:

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