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Test ID: IL28V Interleukin 28B (IL28B) Variant (rs12979860), Varies

Specimen Required

Multiple genotype tests can be performed on a single specimen after a single extraction. See Multiple Genotype Test List in Special Instructions for a list of tests that can be ordered together.


Submit only 1 of the following specimens:


Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred) 9 days/Refrigerated 30 days


Specimen Type: Saliva

Patient Preparation: Patient should not eat, drink smoke, or chew gum 30 minutes prior to collection.

Supplies: DNA Saliva Collection Kit (T786)

Container/Tube: Saliva Swab Collection Kit

Specimen Volume: One swab

Collection Instructions: Collect and send specimen per kit instructions.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient 30 days


Specimen Type: DNA

Container/Tube: 2 mL screw top tube

Specimen Volume: 100 mcL (microliters)

Collection Instructions:

1. The preferred volume is 100 mcL at a concentration of 250 ng/mcL.

2. Include concentration and volume on tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Frozen (preferred)/Ambient/Refrigerated


1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Therapeutics Test Request (T831) form with the specimen.

Useful For

Predicting responsiveness of genotype 1 hepatitis C viral infections to combined pegylated-interferon and ribavirin-based therapies in whole blood specimens

Method Name

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) With Allelic Discrimination Analysis

Reporting Name

IL28B Genotype

Specimen Type


Specimen Minimum Volume

Blood: 0.4 mL
Saliva: 1 swab

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Clinical Information

Individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infections have variable responses to treatment with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. Some individuals will respond to treatment with sustained viral response, while other patients have poor response and fail to achieve sustained viral clearance.


Response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy in HCV genotype 1-infected individuals has been found to be closely associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), designated rs12979860, located 3 kilobases upstream from the interleukin 28B gene locus (IL28B, also known as IFNL3) present on human chromosome 19.


HCV genotype 1-infected individuals with the CC genotype, as compared to either the CT or TT genotypes, of this SNP in IL28B have approximately 2- to 3-fold greater rates of sustained viral response to combined pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy (1). Similar increases in sustained viral response rates were observed across various racial groups, including European Americans (95% CI, 1.8- to 2.3-fold), African Americans (95% CI, 1.9- to 4.7-fold), and Hispanics (95% CI, 1.4- to 3.2-fold).(1) The CC genotype has also been associated with a 3-fold increase in rate of spontaneous clearance of HCV.(2, 4) The SNP in IL28B is only one of many factors that can influence response rates to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy in HCV genotype 1 infection, and the SNP genotype result should be interpreted in the context of other clinical factors present in a given patient.


Frequency of the rs12979860 C allele varies across different racial and ethnic groups. The rs12979860 C variant is most frequently present in individuals from East Asia (allele frequency >0.9) and least common in individuals of African origin (allele frequency 0.2-0.5).(2) In a recent US-based study, the favorable CC genotype was observed in 37% of Caucasians, 29% Hispanics, and 14% of African Americans tested.


The mechanism by which the IL28B genotype mediates response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy among HCV genotype 1-infected individuals is not yet understood and is the subject of intense ongoing research. The impact of the IL28B-related polymorphism on response rates in patients infected with HCV genotypes other than genotype 1 is still being investigated.

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided.


An interpretative report will be provided.

Clinical Reference

1. Ge D, Fellay J, Thompson AJ, et al: Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. Nature 2009;461:399-401

2. Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP, et al: Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature 2009;461:798-801

3. Chalton MR, Thompson A, Veldt BJ, et al: Interleukin-28B polymorphisms are associated with histological recurrence and treatment response following liver transplantation in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2011;53:317-324

4. Thompson AJ, Muir AJ, Sulkowski MS, et al: Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pre-treatment predictor of sustained virologic response in hepatitis C virus-1 patients. Gastroenterology 2010;139:120-129

Day(s) Performed

Monday through Friday

Report Available

3 to 7 days

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
IL28V IL28B Genotype 60279-7


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
BA0128 IL28B Genotype 60279-7
BA0129 IL28B Phenotype 53040-2
BA0130 Interpretation 69047-9
BA0131 Additional Information 48767-8
BA0201 Method 49549-9
BA0202 Disclaimer 62364-5
BA0132 Reviewed by 18771-6
Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Genetics and Pharmacogenomics Catalog Additional Information: