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Test ID: DLAU D-Lactate, Urine

Reporting Name

D-Lactate, U

Useful For

Preferred test for diagnosing D-lactate acidosis, especially in patients with jejunoileal bypass and short-bowel syndrome

Specimen Type


Specimen Required

Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube (T068)

Specimen Volume: 2.5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect a timed or random urine specimen.

2. No preservative.

3. Immediately freeze specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.65 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Frozen (preferred) 365 days
  Refrigerated  7 days
  Ambient  72 hours

Reference Values

0.0-0.25 mmol/L

Day(s) Performed

Wednesday, Friday

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
DLAU D-Lactate, U 14046-7


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
8873 D-Lactate, U 14046-7

Clinical Information

D-lactate is produced by bacteria residing in the colon when carbohydrates are not completely absorbed in the small intestine. When large amounts of D-lactate are present, individuals can experiencemetabolic acidosis, altered mental status (from drowsiness to coma) and a variety of other neurologic symptoms, in particular dysarthria and ataxia. Although a temporal relationship has been described between elevations of plasma and urine D-lactate and the accompanying encephalopathy, the mechanism of neurologic manifestations has not been elucidated.


D-lactic acidosis is typically observed in patients with a malabsorptive disorder, such as short-bowel syndrome, or following jejunoileal bypass. In addition, healthy children presenting with gastroenteritis may also develop the clinical presentation of D-lactic acidosis.


Routine lactic acid determinations in blood will not reveal abnormalities because most lactic acid assays measure only L-lactate. Accordingly, D-lactate analysis must be specifically requested (eg, DLAC / D-Lactate, Plasma). However, as D-lactate is readily excreted in urine, this is the preferred specimen for D-lactate determinations.


Increased levels are diagnostic.

Clinical Reference

1. Brandt RB, Siegel SA, Waters MG, Bloch MH: Spectrophotometric assay for D-(-)-lactate in plasma. Anal Biochem. 1980;102(1):39-46

2. Petersen C: D-lactic acidosis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2005 Dec;20(6):634-645

3. Kowlgi NG, Chhabra L: D-Lactic acidosis: An underrecognized complication of short bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2015;2015:476215. doi: /10.1155/2015/476215

Report Available

4 to 8 days

Method Name


Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Genetics and Pharmacogenomics Catalog Additional Information: