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Test ID: CDKZ CDKN1C Gene, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Useful For

Confirming a clinical diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome following a normal result on methylation analysis

 

Confirming a clinical diagnosis of IMAGe (intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies) syndrome

 

Confirming a clinical diagnosis of Russell-Silver syndrome following a normal result on methylation analysis and uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 studies

Reflex Tests

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No
CULAF Amniotic Fluid Culture/Genetic Test Yes No
MATCC Maternal Cell Contamination, B Yes No

Testing Algorithm

For prenatal specimens only:

-If amniotic fluid (nonconfluent cultured cells) is received, amniotic fluid culture will be added at an additional charge.

-If chorionic villus specimen (nonconfluent cultured cells) is received, fibroblast culture will be added at an additional charge.

 

For any prenatal specimen that is received, maternal cell contamination testing will be performed at an additional charge.

 

 For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

Method Name

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Sequencing

Reporting Name

CDKN1C Gene, Full Gene Analysis

Specimen Type

Varies


Ordering Guidance


This test is for CDKN1C gene sequencing. For a full evaluation of a possible diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome, the recommended first-tier test is BWRS / Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome/Russell-Silver Syndrome, Molecular Analysis, Varies.



Additional Testing Requirements


All prenatal specimens must be accompanied by a maternal blood specimen; order MATCC / Maternal Cell Contamination, Molecular Analysis, Varies on the maternal specimen as this must be a different order number than the prenatal specimen.



Shipping Instructions


Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.



Specimen Required


Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

 

Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-75 or T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 1 Full T-75 flask or 2 full T-25 flasks

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated <24 hours

Additional information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Fibroblast Biopsy Transport Media (T115)

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin. Tubes can be supplied upon request (Eagle's minimum essential medium with 1% penicillin and streptomycin).

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Prenatal Specimens

Due to the complexity of prenatal testing, consultation with the laboratory is required for all prenatal testing. Prenatal specimens can be sent Monday through Thursday and must be received by 5 p.m. Central time on Friday in order to be processed appropriately.

 

Specimen Type: Amniotic fluid

Container/Tube: Amniotic fluid container

Specimen Volume: 20 mL

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional information:

1. A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULAF / Culture for Genetic Testing, Amniotic Fluid. An additional 2 to 3 weeks is required to culture amniotic fluid before genetic testing can occur.

2. All prenatal specimens must be accompanied by a maternal blood specimen; order MATCC / Maternal Cell Contamination, Molecular Analysis, Varies on the maternal specimen.

 

Specimen Type: Chorionic villi

Container/Tube: 15-mL tube containing 15 mL of transport media

Specimen Volume: 20 mg

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated

Additional information:

1. A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 2 to 3 weeks is required to culture chorionic villi before genetic testing can occur.

2. All prenatal specimens must be accompanied by a maternal blood specimen; order MATCC / Maternal Cell Contamination, Molecular Analysis, Varies on the maternal specimen.

 

Specimen Type: Confluent cultured cells

Container/Tube: T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 2 Flasks

Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured cells from another laboratory.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information: All prenatal specimens must be accompanied by a maternal blood specimen; order MATCC / Maternal Cell Contamination, Molecular Analysis, Varies on the maternal specimen.


Specimen Minimum Volume

Blood: 1 mL; Other specimen types: See Specimen Required

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Clinical Information

The CDKN1C gene is an imprinted gene that has been associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), IMAGe (intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies) syndrome, and Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS). Imprinting describes a difference in gene expression based on parent of origin. The majority of autosomal genes exhibit biallelic (maternal and paternal) expression, whereas imprinted genes are normally expressed from only one parent. CDKN1C is typically expressed on the maternally inherited allele.

 

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome:

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a disorder characterized by prenatal and/or postnatal overgrowth, neonatal hypoglycemia, congenital malformations, and an increased risk for embryonal tumors. Physical findings are variable and can include abdominal wall defects, macroglossia, and hemihyperplasia. The predisposition for tumor development is associated with specific tumor types such as adrenal carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor), hepatoblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. In infancy, BWS has a mortality rate of approximately 20%.

 

Most cases of BWS are caused by hypomethylation of LIT1, paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 11, or hypermethylation of H19. Approximately 5% to 10% of sporadic BWS cases and approximately 40% of BWS cases with a positive family history are caused by CDKN1C variants. The appropriate first-tier test in the evaluation of a possible diagnosis of BWS is BWRS / Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome/Russell-Silver Syndrome, Molecular Analysis, Varies. This test may be considered when the results of BWS methylation analysis are negative, and there is still a strong clinical suspicion of BWS.

 

IMAGe Syndrome:

Variants in the CDKN1C gene have also been associated with IMAGe syndrome. The CDKN1C variants associated with IMAGe syndrome tend to be missense variants occurring in the PCNA-binding domain of the gene. Not every individual with a clinical diagnosis of IMAGe syndrome will have an identifiable CDKN1C variant.

 

Russell-Silver Syndrome:

Russell-Silver syndrome is a rare genetic condition with an incidence of approximately 1 in 100,000. RSS is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth delay with normal head circumference, characteristic facies, fifth finger clinodactyly, and asymmetry of the face, body, and/or limbs. Less commonly observed clinical features include cafe au lait spots, genitourinary anomalies, motor, speech, cognitive delays, and hypoglycemia.

 

RSS is a genetically heterogeneous condition that is associated with genetic and epigenetic alterations at chromosome 7 and the chromosome 11p15.5 region. The majority of cases of RSS are sporadic, although familial cases have been reported. The etiology of sporadic cases of RSS includes: hypomethylation of IC1 (H19), maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 7, 11p15.5 duplications (rare), and chromosome 7 duplications (rare).

 

CDKN1C variants have recently been identified as a cause of RSS in some families. This test may be considered when results of RSS methylation analysis and UPD 7 studies are negative and there is still a strong clinical suspicion of RSS

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Clinical Reference

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. DeBaun MR, Niemitz EL, McNeil DE, Brandenburg SA, Lee MP, Feinberg AP: Epigenetic alterations of H19 and LIT1 distinguish patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with cancer and birth defects. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Mar;70(3):604-611

3. Choufani S, Shuman C, Weksberg R: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 2010 Aug;154C(3):343-354

4. Romanelli V, Belinchon A, Benito-Sanz S, et al: CDKN1C (p57[Kip2]) analysis in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) patients: Genotype-phenotype correlations, novel mutations, and polymorphisms. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Jun;152A:1390-1397. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33453

5. Lam WWK, Hatada I, Ohishi S, et al: Analysis of germline CDKNIC (p57[Kip2]) mutations in familial and sporadic Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) provides a novel genotype-phenotype correlation. J Med Genet. 1999 Jul;36(7):518-523

6. Arboleda VA, Lee H, Parnaik R, et al: Mutations in the PCNA-binding domain of CDKN1C cause IMAGe syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 May;44(7):788-792

Day(s) Performed

Varies

Report Available

14 to 20 days

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

81479

88233-Tissue culture, skin or solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

88235-Amniotic fluid culture (if appropriate)

81265-Maternal cell contamination (if appropriate)

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CDKZ CDKN1C Gene, Full Gene Analysis 94193-0

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
53880 Result Summary 50397-9
53881 Result 82939-0
53882 Interpretation 69047-9
53883 Additional Information 48767-8
53884 Specimen 31208-2
53885 Source 31208-2
53886 Released By 18771-6

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521)

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Genetics and Pharmacogenomics Catalog Additional Information:

mml-inherited-molecular