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Test ID: 2HGA 2-Hydroxyglutaric Acid Chiral Analysis, Quantitative, Random, Urine


Necessary Information


Age and sex of patient are required.



Specimen Required


Supplies: Urine Tube, 10 mL (T068)

Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube

Specimen Volume: 10 mL

Pediatric: If the collection volume appears insufficient, submit as much specimen as possible in a single container; the laboratory will determine if volume is sufficient for test.

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect a random urine specimen (first morning void preferred)

2. No preservative


Useful For

Determining type of 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria by chiral analysis of urine

Method Name

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Reporting Name

D-,L- 2-Hydroxyglutaric Acid, QN, U

Specimen Type

Urine

Specimen Minimum Volume

1 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Frozen (preferred) 416 days
  Ambient  14 days
  Refrigerated  14 days

Clinical Information

2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria disorders are a group of cerebral organic acidurias that present biochemically with an elevation of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid (2-HGA) in the urine. There are 2 enantiomers or forms of 2-HGA, the D-form and the L-form. Depending on the genetic defect, individuals may have an elevation of one or both forms of 2-HGA. Routine organic acid analysis (OAU / Organic Acids Screen, Random, Urine), while able to detect 2-HGA, is unable to distinguish between the 2 enantiomers; however, they can be separated with this more specialized biochemical test.

 

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is caused by defects in L2HGDH and is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and intellectual disability, seizures, and macrocephaly beginning in infancy or early childhood. Symptoms worsen over time leading to severe disability by early adulthood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings include subcortical leukoencephalopathy, generalized cerebellar and cerebral atrophy, and atrophy of the corpus callosum.

 

D-2-hydroxylglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA) is characterized by elevated levels of D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (D-2-HG) and typically manifests with developmental delay, seizures, and hypotonia, though can vary widely from asymptomatic to severe. There are 2 types of D-2-HGA depending on the genetic cause. D-2-HGA can either be autosomal recessive, resulting from variants in D2HGDH causing reduced enzymatic activity (type I), or autosomal dominant gain-of-function variants in IDH2 causing overproduction of D-2-HG (type II).

 

Combined D,L-2-hydroxylglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA) is the most severe of the 3 types and is caused by defects in SLC25A1, which encodes the mitochondrial citrate carrier. It is characterized by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development resulting in early death.

 

Molecular genetic testing is available (2OHGP / 2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria Gene Panel, Varies), which includes analysis of D2HGDH, L2HGDH, IDH2, and SLC25A1 and can be used to confirm abnormal urine results.

Reference Values

Age

D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (mmol/mol creatinine)

L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid
(mmol/mol creatinine)

0-11 months

≤14.11

≤17.38

12-23 months

≤13.76

≤17.03

24-35 months

≤13.38

≤16.63

3 years

≤12.96

≤16.18

4 years

≤12.20

≤15.35

5 years

≤11.40

≤14.44

6 years

≤10.56

≤13.46

7 years

≤9.71

≤12.43

8 years

≤8.93

≤11.44

9 years

≤8.21

≤10.50

10 years

≤7.56

≤9.66

11 years

≤6.99

≤8.94

12 years

≤6.47

≤8.33

13 years

≤6.01

≤7.83

14 years

≤5.60

≤7.44

15 years

≤5.23

≤7.14

16 years

≤4.91

≤6.93

17 years

≤4.63

≤6.78

18 years

≤4.40

≤6.69

19 years

≤4.21

≤6.63

20 years

≤4.07

≤6.60

21 years

≤3.96

≤6.59

22 years

≤3.88

≤6.58

23 years

≤3.81

≤6.56

24 years

≤3.76

≤6.54

25 years

≤3.71

≤6.50

26 years

≤3.67

≤6.44

27 years

≤3.63

≤6.37

28 years

≤3.59

≤6.27

29 years

≤3.56

≤6.15

30 years

≤3.54

≤6.02

31 years

≤3.52

≤5.87

32 years

≤3.50

≤5.72

33 years

≤3.49

≤5.57

34 years

≤3.48

≤5.41

35 years

≤3.46

≤5.26

36 years

≤3.45

≤5.13

37 years

≤3.43

≤5.00

38 years

≤3.42

≤4.88

39 years

≤3.40

≤4.78

40 years

≤3.39

≤4.70

41 years

≤3.37

≤4.62

42 years

≤3.35

≤4.55

43 years

≤3.33

≤4.50

44 years

≤3.30

≤4.44

45 years

≤3.28

≤4.40

46 years

≤3.24

≤4.35

47 years

≤3.21

≤4.31

48 years

≤3.17

≤4.27

49 years

≤3.13

≤4.23

50 years

≤3.10

≤4.19

51 years

≤3.07

≤4.16

52 years

≤3.04

≤4.12

53 years

≤3.01

≤4.10

54 years

≤2.99

≤4.07

55 years

≤2.97

≤4.04

56 years

≤2.95

≤4.01

57 years

≤2.93

≤3.98

58 years

≤2.91

≤3.94

59 years

≤2.89

≤3.91

60 years

≤2.87

≤3.87

61 years

≤2.85

≤3.84

62 years

≤2.83

≤3.80

63 years

≤2.79

≤3.78

64 years

≤2.76

≤3.75

65 years

≤2.71

≤3.73

66 years

≤2.67

≤3.72

67 years

≤2.61

≤3.71

68 years

≤2.56

≤3.69

69 years

≤2.50

≤3.68

70 years

≤2.44

≤3.66

71 years

≤2.38

≤3.64

72 years

≤2.32

≤3.61

73 years

≤2.26

≤3.56

74 years

≤2.21

≤3.50

75 years

≤2.16

≤3.43

76 years

≤2.10

≤3.35

77 years

≤2.05

≤3.26

78 years

≤2.00

≤3.17

79 years

≤1.94

≤3.08

80 years

≤1.89

≤2.99

81 years

≤1.84

≤2.91

82 years

≤1.80

≤2.84

83 years

≤1.75

≤2.78

84 years

≤1.71

≤2.73

85 years

≤1.68

≤2.69

86 years

≤1.65

≤2.67

87 years

≤1.64

≤2.65

88 years

≤1.63

≤2.64

≥89 years

≤1.62

≤2.64

Interpretation

The values for the D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid and L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid concentrations are reported. The interpretation of the result must be correlated with clinical and other laboratory findings.

Clinical Reference

1. Kranendijk M, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C: Progress in understanding 2-hydroxyglutaric acidurias. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2012 Jul;35(4):571-587. doi: 10.1007/s10545-012-9462-5

2. Muhlhausen C, Salomons GS, Lukacs Z, et al: Combined D2-/L2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (SLC25A1 deficiency): clinical course and effects of citrate treatment. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2014 Sep;37(5):775-781. doi: 10.1007/s10545-014-9702-y

3. Struys EA: D-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria: unravelling the biochemical pathway and the genetic defect. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Feb;29(1):21-29. doi: 10.1007/s10545-006-0317-9

4. Perales-Clemente E, Hewitt AL, Studinski AL, et al: Bilateral subdural hematomas and retinal hemorrhages mimicking nonaccidental trauma in a patient with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. JIMD Rep. 2020 Nov 20;58(1):21-28. doi: 10.1002/jmd2.12188

Day(s) Performed

Monday

Report Available

1 to 9 days

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

83921 x 2

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
2HGA D-,L- 2-Hydroxyglutaric Acid, QN, U 79297-8

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
614619 Interpretation 79303-4
614620 D-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid 80100-1
614621 L-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid 80099-5
614622 Reviewed By 18771-6
Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Genetics and Pharmacogenomics Catalog Additional Information:

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