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Test ID: XALDZ X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy, Full Gene Analysis

Useful For

Confirming a diagnosis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

 

Identifying a mutation in the ABCD1 gene

Reflex Tests

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture for genetic test will be added and charged separately.

 

See Newborn Screen Follow-up for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Special Instructions.

Method Name

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplification/DNA Sequencing

Reporting Name

X-ALD, Full Gene Analysis

Specimen Type

Varies


Shipping Instructions


Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of draw.



Specimen Required


Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Preferred:

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

 

Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-75 or T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 1 full T-75 flask or 2 full T-25 flasks

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated <24 hours

 

Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin. Tubes can be supplied upon request (Eagle's minimum essential medium with 1% penicillin and streptomycin [T115]).

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

 

Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Card - Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: Ahlstrom 226 filter paper or Blood Spot Collection Card (T493)

Specimen Volume: 2 to 5 Blood spots on collection card

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient >1 year of age is finger stick.

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for 3 hours.

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.


Specimen Minimum Volume

Blood: 1 mL
Blood Spots: 5 punches-3 mm diameter

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Varies Varies

Clinical Information

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disease characterized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the white matter, adrenocortical insufficiency, and abnormal plasma concentrations of very long chain fatty acids. The phenotypic expression of X-ALD varies widely. The phenotypes can be subdivided into 3 main categories: childhood cerebral form, adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), and Addison disease only. The childhood cerebral form has onset of symptoms between ages 4 and 8, beginning with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms with progressive cognitive, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor deterioration. AMN usually presents in males in their late twenties as progressive paraparesis, sexual dysfunction, sphincter disturbances, and abnormalities in adrenocortical function. The Addison only phenotype typically presents by age 7.5 with adrenocortical insufficiency without significant neurological involvement. Most of these patients eventually develop AMN. Some female carriers may experience mild AMN symptoms with a later age of onset.

 

The phenotype cannot be predicted by very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) plasma concentration or by the nature of the mutation. The same mutation can be associated with each of the known phenotypes. Different phenotypes often occur within a family.

 

POX / Fatty Acid Profile, Peroxisomal (C22-C26), Serum testing is the preferred first-tier screening method for X-ALD. This is abnormal in 99% of affected males and 85% of carrier females. Sequencing of the ABCD1 gene is available to confirm the diagnosis of X-ALD, improve carrier detection, and assist with prenatal diagnosis.

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Clinical Reference

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Moser HW, Mahmood A, Raymond GV: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2007 Mar;3(3):140-151

3. Wang Y, Busin R, Reeves C, et al: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: ABCD1 de novo mutations and mosaicism. Mol Genet Metab 2011 Sep-Oct;104(1-2):160-166

4. Kemp S, Berger J, Aubourg P: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: Clinical, metabolic, genetic and pathophysiological aspects. Biochim Biophys Acta 2012 Sept;1822(9):1465-1474

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Performed weekly, Varies

Analytic Time

14 days

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

81405-ABCD1 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D [ALD] member 1) (eg, adrenoleukodystrophy) full gene sequence

Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test

88233-Tissue culture, skin or solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
XALDZ X-ALD, Full Gene Analysis In Process

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
53561 Result Summary 50397-9
53562 Result In Process
53563 Interpretation 69047-9
53564 Additional Information 48767-8
53565 Specimen 31208-2
53566 Source 31208-2
53567 Released By No LOINC Needed

Forms

1. Molecular Genetics: Biochemical Disorders Patient Information (T527) in Special Instructions

2. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576) is available in Special Instructions.

Mayo Medical Laboratories | Genetics and Pharmacogenomics Catalog Additional Information:

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