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Test ID: GRHPZ GRHPR Gene, Full Gene Analysis

Method Name

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Sequence Analysis and Gene Dosage Analysis by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA)

Reporting Name

GRHPR Gene, Full Gene Analysis

Specimen Type

Varies


Shipping Instructions


Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of draw.



Specimen Required


Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:        

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.


Specimen Minimum Volume

1 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Varies Ambient (preferred)
  Frozen 
  Refrigerated 

Clinical Information

Primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) is a hereditary disorder of glyoxylate metabolism caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR). Absence of GRHPR activity results in excess oxalate and usually L-glycerate excreted in the urine leading to nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) and sometimes renal failure.

 

Onset of PH2 is typically in childhood or adolescence with symptoms related to kidney stones. In some cases, kidney failure may be the initial presenting feature. Nephrocalcinosis, as seen by renal ultrasound, is observed less frequently in individuals with PH2 than primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is also less common and of later onset than PH1; however, once ESRD develops, oxalate deposition in other organs such as bone, retina, and myocardium can occur.

 

While the exact prevalence and incidence of PH2 are not known, it is thought that PH2 is less common than PH1, which has an estimated prevalence rate of 1 to 3 per million population and an incidence of 0.1 per million/year.

 

Biochemical testing is indicated in patients with possible primary hyperoxaluria. Measurement of urinary oxalate in a timed, 24-hour urine collection is strongly preferred, with correction to adult body surface area in pediatric patients (HYOX / Hyperoxaluria Panel, Urine; OXU / Oxalate, Urine). In very young children (incapable of performing a timed collection), random urine oxalate to creatinine ratios may be used for determination of oxalate excretion. In patients with reduced kidney function, POXA / Oxalate, Plasma is also recommended. Urinary excretion of oxalate of >1.0 mmol/1.73 m(2)/24 hours is strongly suggestive of, but not diagnostic, for primary hyperoxaluria as there are other forms of inherited hyperoxaluria (PH1 and non-PH1/PH2) and secondary hyperoxaluria that may result in similarly elevated urine oxalate excretion rates. An elevated urine glycerate in the presence of hyperoxaluria is suggestive of PH2. Caution is warranted in interpretation of urine oxalate excretion in patients with reduced kidney function as urine oxalate concentrations may be lower due to reduced glomerular filtration rate. Historically, the diagnosis of PH2 was confirmed by GRHPR enzyme analysis performed on liver biopsy; however, this has been replaced by molecular testing, which forms the basis of confirmatory or carrier testing in most cases.

 

PH2 is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the GRHPR gene, which encodes the enzyme GRHPR. Two common GRHPR mutations have been identified: c.103delG and c.403_404+2delAAGT. These mutations account for about one-third of the mutant alleles described in the Northern European Caucasian population and about 15% in the Asian population. Direct sequencing of the GRHPR gene will identify these 2 mutations as well as other less common or novel mutations associated with PH2.

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation

All detected alterations will be evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations.(1) Variants will be classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity, and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Clinical Reference

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2-GeneReviews-NCBI Bookshelf. Available from URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2692/, accessed 8-7-2012

3. Rumsby G, Williams E, Coulter-Mackie M: Evaluation of mutation screening as a first line test for the diagnosis of the primary hyperoxalurias. Kidney Int 2004;66(3):959-963

4. Cregeen DP, Williams EL, Hulton S, Rumsby G: Molecular analysis of the glyoxylate reductase (GRHPR) gene and description of mutations underlying primary hyperoxaluria type 2. Hum Mutat 2003;22(6):497

5. Laboratory and molecular diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria and oxalosis. Mayo Medical Laboratories' Communique, April 2007

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Performed weekly, varies

Analytic Time

14 days

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

81479-Unlisted molecular pathology procedure

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GRHPZ GRHPR Gene, Full Gene Analysis In Process

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
53491 Result Summary 50397-9
53492 Result In Process
53493 Interpretation 69047-9
53494 Additional Information 48767-8
53495 Specimen 31208-2
53496 Source 31208-2
53497 Released By No LOINC Needed

Useful For

Confirming a diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2)

Carrier testing for individuals with a family history of PH2 in the absence of known mutations in the family

Testing Algorithm

See Hyperoxaluria Diagnostic Algorithm in Special Instructions

Forms

1. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521) in Special Instructions

2. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576) is available in Special Instructions.

Mayo Medical Laboratories | Genetics and Pharmacogenomics Catalog Additional Information:

mml-inherited-molecular